How to prepare your child for academic success

The foundations for academic success are built in the preschool years and there is much that you can do, as the parent of a preschooler, to ensure that your child is well prepared to flourish at school.  In order to promote your child’s academic flourishing it is necessary to understand where family and formal education fit into the picture.  Formal education, including literacy and numeracy, can be thought of as multiple interlocking towers, built piece by piece, ever upwards.  Some parents are tempted to begin building these towers at home, before school, in order to give their children a head start.  In fact, I’d argue that your time is better spent building a stronger foundation.  The towers of formal education all rest upon a foundation of oral language, curiosity, intelligence, relational concepts (relational frames) and social-emotional understanding.  The stronger the foundation, the easier and quicker the towers will be built.  So, how can we, as parents, help our children to build this strong foundation?

  1. Play, play, play and more play.  Play is the engine driving intellectual development so make your children’s play a priority in your home.  Provide opportunities for active play in playgrounds, for pretend play, for play with construction toys like blocks, for play with arts and crafts activities, for play alone, for play with other children and for play with you.  Make sure you often let your child lead the play.
  2. Provide ample quality toys to facilitate play: blocks, dolls, lego, craft bits and pieces, train sets, tea sets, doll houses, pretend kitchens, trucks, toy animals, swings, slides…  Quality toys are not a luxury or mere entertainment for a preschooler.  Quality toys, for preschoolers, are what textbooks, computer access and pen and paper are for a High School student.  Fortunately, we live a time when toys are cheap but if finances are an issue for you than consider buying second-hand or using a toy library and accessing your local park.
  3. Read to your child regularly.  Make reading time special and allow yourself to delight in the pleasure of the written word.  There are many delightful children’s books so find some favourites that you can enjoy too.  If you can’t afford to purchase a selection of children’s books then access your local library.  Talk to your child about the books that you are reading.  Ask questions like: What do you think she will do next?  How does he feel? What happened in that story? Who was that story about?
  4. Talk to your child.  From birth onwards talk to your child often.  Don’t restrict your language to the necessary chatter.  Instead, verbalise your thoughts, count aloud, talk about colours, shapes, textures, animals, talk about your feelings and ask your child about their thoughts and feelings. Language exposure fuels language development.  Language development enables academic success.  Literacy, in particular, relies on oral language.
  5. Talk about relational concepts and words.  Relational concepts (also called relational frames) relate two or more concepts in a specific way, for example: opposite, same, under, bigger than, before, and faster.  Relational concepts underpin much of what we consider academic intelligence and many are key concepts in mathematics (e.g. bigger than).  Notice relational concepts in your everyday life and find opportunities to explore relational concepts during play with your child.  For example, during play with blocks you might ask, “Hey, which block is the biggest?”

Apply it to your life:  Do you live these five tips?  Is there a small step you could take in building a solid foundation for your child’s formal education?


Hart & Risley (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children.  Baltimore, Paul H Brookes Publishing Co.

Ginsburg, K.R. (2007).  The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds.  Pediatrics, 119, pp182-191.

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How to handle your child’s boundary testing like a pro

All parents know that as children develop, they go through stages were they particularly ‘test the boundaries’.  During these stages, children often focus on testing out particular family expectations.  Suddenly a daily task that caused no distress or grief whatsoever becomes the centre of vocal and angry objections.  These ‘boundary testing’ times can be very stressful.  You might wonder what you did to cause your child’s sudden anger and defiance, or you might be at a loss to know how to respond.  How do you make both your expectations and your love abundantly clear? Well, I’m going to share how I handled a recent ‘boundary test’ with my daughter.  You’ll get to see exactly how a real life parenting researcher handles it: not edited book-perfectly but as a human being in messy reality.  Finally, I’ll distill my experience into some simple tips.

At the time of this ‘boundary test’ my daughter was two and a half and the testing centred on teeth brushing.  In the past, teeth brushing hadn’t been an issue.  It started with her responding to my requests to open her mouth by pursing her lips into a little O shape like a goldfish. I gave her the benefit of the doubt – perhaps she was experimenting, or being humorous?  I played along, making different shapes with my mouth too until I got a wide enough mouth from her that I could slip the toothbrush in.  This continued for several days, and I wondered: is this a passing game, or is she ramping up for a challenge?  Sure enough, the challenge came.  She refused, with anger and tears to open her mouth at all.  In that first interaction I also gave her the benefit of the doubt – perhaps she was tired, or sickening for something.  I didn’t back off altogether (that would have reinforced her tantrum) but I did lower my expectations to merely getting the toothbrush to touch her teeth at all, and I thanked her for letting me brush her teeth once that was achieved.   I ended the interaction before it escalated.  As time passed, it became clear that she wasn’t sick.  The next time her teeth needed brushing there was another tantrum.

We were in the thick of a boundary test and this particular boundary, brushing teeth regularly, was one we couldn’t compromise on.  I started by talking about the issue to the two other people who also brush her teeth, my husband and my mum.  She was testing the boundary with everyone.  We hatched a plan.  We would need to be persistent, to weather the storm.  We would also talk to her about why teeth needed to be brushed, not when we were actually trying to brush her teeth, but during the day when she was calm and happy.  I knew that, for the next several days, teeth brushing could take an hour or more so I planned my day accordingly.  As we enacted our plan, my husband and I ran into an unforeseen stumbling block.  My daughter, already several minutes into full meltdown, yelled that she wanted daddy not mummy to brush her teeth.  Of course, we had no issue with her choosing who she wanted to brush her teeth.  But we could not respond to angry yelling lest we reinforced the tantrum.  I said that we could do that if she asked in a normal voice, she did and I passed the toothbrush to my husband.  Going forward we decided that we would give her every choice that we were happy to give at the very beginning of the interaction so that she couldn’t throw a reasonable request at us mid-tantrum.  So now, before brushing her teeth we ask if she wants to have her turn first or second and we ask (if both of us are in the house), if she wants mummy or daddy to brush them.

So, what did being persistent and weathering the storm actually look like?  I’d get her toothbrush and tell her that it was time to brush her teeth.  I’d let her choose if she wanted to have her turn first or second, and, if my husband was in the house, if she wanted me or him to brush them.  With her choices locked in, and once it was my turn to brush, I’d ask her to open her mouth wide.  If she objected I’d say something like, ‘I know you don’t like it, but I have to do it to keep your teeth healthy’.  If she still didn’t open her mouth I’d say something like, ‘We have to brush your teeth.  I’ll wait until you are ready.’  I’d then sit silently near her.  If she asked me to play or talked to me about something else I’d say something like, ‘I’d love to play with you.  I need to brush your teeth first.  As soon as your teeth are brushed we can play.’  Any objections or yelling I’d simply ignore.  If she was clearly feeling sad or angry I’d say something like, ‘I can see you are feeling really sad about this.  I can understand that but I still need to brush your teeth.  If there’s some way I can help, like by giving you a hug, just let me know’.  If she asked for a hug I’d give it.  I would not, however, respond to the tantrum behaviour itself (hugging a child in response to tantruming may reinforce tantrum behaviour and it may also be unwelcome).  In fact, I was silent most of the time.  I actually said very little.  I took deep breaths and kept myself calm and centred.  I tried to project, with my stance, body language and facial expression that I was completely accepting of her and her feelings, that I loved and adored her exactly as she was… and I was going to keep patiently waiting, as long as it took, for her to be ready. Eventually, she’d open her mouth.  I’d slip the toothbrush in and say something like, ‘Thank-you that’s a lovely big mouth.  Let’s get rid of those germs and keep your teeth nice and strong’.  I wouldn’t push it.  Just getting the toothbrush in was enough at first.  The first few storms that we weathered were big, long and emotional. Within a couple of days, they’d become short objections.  Soon, teeth brushing returned to being easy.

So, how can you handle the next ‘boundary test’ by the children in your life?

  • Start by giving the benefit of the doubt.  Often children are just playing around, or tired, or getting sick.
  • When suddenly confronted with ‘defiance’ it is okay to lower your standard to the bare minimum and get through an interaction without escalation.  That way, you can wait and see what’s really happening and calmly think through how you’d like to respond.
  • It isn’t about ‘winning’ an interaction.  It is about shaping behaviour gradually with time.  Let go of winning.
  • Communicate with the other carers in your child’s life including your partner, family and childcare provider.
  • Be flexible.  Unexpected stumbling blocks are a part of life.  It is okay to adapt your plan.  If you are really uncertain, you can exit that particular interaction in order to give yourself time to think and get advice.
  • Give your child every choice you can at the outset.  Respect all reasonable requests.
  • Explain why a particular expectation is necessary, at a time when everyone is calm and happy.
  • If you know that persistence is necessary, then plan for it in your day.
  • Be persistent in weathering the storm. Wait patiently.
  • Ignore tantrum behaviours.
  • Don’t play or interact until your child has done as you’ve asked.  Let her know that’s what you are doing.
  • Acknowledge your child’s emotions with acceptance and love.
  • Don’t comfort in response to tantrum behaviours (firstly, that might reinforce tantruming and secondly, your child may well not want you to hug them when they are angry with you!).  However, if your child is clearly distressed then you can say that you are willing to give a hug if asked.  If your child asks for comfort it is fine to respond to their request with comfort (by doing so, you are reinforcing asking for comfort not tantruming – that’s a good thing!).
  • Stay calm and loving (take deep breaths!).
  • Say little.
  • When your child does as you’ve asked, thank them.
  • Don’t push it.  Bare minimum is enough for now.

Apply it to your life:  How do you handle ‘boundary testing’?  Try out some of my tips with your child.  What works for you?

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Why does my child keep asking why?

Preschoolers are overflowing with questions, many of them beginning with:  why? Why is the sun hot?  Why does kitty eat?  Why are you cleaning the floor? Answers are usually responded to with more questions. Why, why, why?

The question is: why do preschoolers ask why so often?  The whys seem to be a universal stage so asking why must be important developmentally.  Obviously, preschoolers have a lot to learn about the world so it makes sense, I think, if at least some of the whys are motivated by a desire for more information.  Asking questions, particularly about what someone is doing, can also be a way to connect with another person and start an interaction.  So, I also think it would make sense if at least some of the whys are aimed at beginning a conversation with us.  But, I think, neither of these explanations goes far in explaining the tidal wave of whys that is the preschool years.  After all, school age children also have a lot to learn about the world and a desire to interact with us, and while of course they do ask questions they no longer drill their parents relentlessly with whys as younger children do.  I think that the skill preschool children are acquiring with all of their whys is reason-giving itself.

Reason-giving, or attributing causality, is actually pretty complex.  Consider, there are actually several different types of causes and different causes are used for different things.  So, for people and animals we give intentional explanations, we attribute cause to mental and emotional states.  ‘Why did kitty scratch me?’  ‘Because kitty was angry’ For man-made objects we give teleological explanations, we attribute cause to purpose.  ‘Why is a knife sharp?’ ‘So we can cut food with it’ For the nonliving, natural world, we give physical causal explanations, we attribute cause to past physical events and natural laws.  ‘Why has my paint turned green?’ ‘Because the blue and yellow paint mixed together and blue and yellow make green.’  Children need to learn to give the right kind of explanation for the right kind of thing.  They also need to learn, with intentional explanations, the kinds of reasons we deem socially-acceptable.  So, while ‘because kitty was angry’ is a perfectly acceptable explanation for why kitty scratched a child, ‘because I was angry’ is not considered an acceptable reason for a child to scratch another child.  Tricky, huh?  There’s another level of complexity too.  How far back in the casual stream do you need to go in order to give a sufficient explanation?  So, the answer to the question ‘why are you putting food into kitty’s dish?’ is ‘because kitty is hungry’ not ‘because fifteen years ago I visited the RSPCA and adopted a kitten’ or even ‘because four billion years ago life evolved from the primordial soup on the planet we call Earth’ even though all of these events were a necessary part of the causal history leading up to the moment of putting food into a cat bowl on a particular evening.  We actually assume quite a lot about the world as we give reasons for one particular event, and knowing what we can assume and what we can’t is a pretty tricky business.  I think this is the reason why, in preschoolers, the whys just keep coming.  They don’t know how far up the casual stream to tread.

So, if I’m right and the tidal wave of whys is about understanding reason-giving itself, how should we respond?   Firstly, answer.  Give your child the best answers you’ve got, remembering that your child is learning not just the information you are providing but how to give explanations.  You can also reflect the question back to your child, that is, ask her what she thinks the answer is.  This gives her the opportunity to try out her reasoning-giving skills.  But above all, we should respond with patience and a bit of wonder.  We are watching our child learn a pretty incredible skill.

Apply it to your life:  Does your child corner you with ‘whys’?  Why do you think that happens?


Frazier, BN., Gelman, SA., Wellman HM. (2009). Preschoolers’ search for explanatory information within adult-child conversation.  Child Development, 80 (6), 1592-611.

Keleman D. (1999). Why are rocks pointy? Children’s preference for teleological explanations of the natural world.  Developmental Psychology, 35 (6), 1440-52.

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Managing your anger without losing your temper

A new article of mine has been published on Happy Parenting entitled: Managing your anger without losing your temper.  You can read it here: 

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Your child doesn’t want a perfect parent…your child wants you

We all have a cardboard cut-out idea of the perfect parent rattling away in our mind’s attic.  You know, a superhero with infinite patience that doesn’t need to eat or sleep, who can read your child’s every thought or feeling with a single glance, clean and re-organise the house with a wiggle of her nose, shoot delicious and yet organic and completely healthy cookie dough out of her right pointer finger in a moment’s notice…  A ridiculous blend of aspirations, memories, stereotypes and sitcoms, cobbled together with homemade, organic glitter-glue.  And it is easy, so easy, to compare ourselves to this ridiculous and inhuman collage of perfection.  So easy to compare and so easy to find ourselves wanting…

And here’s my insight: my cardboard cut-out idea of the perfect parent rattles away in my mind’s attic.  In MY mind…

From the moment that my daughter first gazed upon my face she saw, she has been seeing, not a cardboard cut-out, but ME…  And when she sings out, “Mummy!” she isn’t hoping that a cobbled together collage of parental perfection will answer her call.  She is hoping that I will.

So when you next compare yourself unfavourably to the cardboard cut-out of the perfect parent that rattles away in your mind, remember this, there’s one quality that you have that no ideal of perfection ever can: your child’s love.  From the very start, your child has been seeking connection with you, not with a parental superhero, but with you.

Apply it to your life:  Do you have a cardboard cut-out idea of the perfect parent rattling away in your mind?  Can you recognise that it is, in fact, you your child loves?

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What do children really need?

I find discourse on the ‘needs’ of children troubling at times.  By which I don’t mean that children don’t have needs.  Unquestionably they do.  Water, for example, is something that all human children undeniably and clearly need.  What I mean is that talking about children’s ‘needs’ seems to enable the speaker to slip a whole lot of personal opinion, ideals and values in the back door and present it as unquestionable fact.  This doesn’t mean that the opinions, ideals and values are wrong, or not worth pursuing.  But it creates confusion.  It makes it possible to ruthlessly stamp people who may disagree into the ground.  It makes it seem as if there’s only one option.  This is especially problematic because children’s own descriptions of their needs are not taken seriously.  So it is adults who define what children do or do not need and we can pass off almost anything as a need.  We can even pass off as a need experiences that children themselves strenuously object to!  To see how this might be a problem, consider what men have said about the needs of women, or what white colonisers have said about the needs of Indigenous Peoples.  The human race doesn’t have a good track record for being able to talk insightfully and truthfully about the needs of others.

So what are we really saying when we talk about ‘needs’?

What are we really saying, for example, when we say that children need to learn to sleep in their own bed?  Or that children need to learn to control their emotional reactions?  Or that children need to sit still and pay attention?

It seems to me that all of these statements are personal opinion, ideals and values masquerading as objective truths.  Again, I am not saying that the personal opinions, ideals and values are wrong or not worth pursuing.  But notice the difference between:

Children need to learn to sit still and pay attention


I think it is wise to teach children to sit still and pay attention because we are living in a culture where children receive extensive formal education, and education predicts later success.  Being able to sit still and pay attention will help your child to get the most out of school.

It feels quite different doesn’t it?  The second is clearly a personal opinion, driven by specific values applied in a particular cultural context.  To me, it feels open, flexible and adaptable.  As if there are other options. In contrast, the first statement hits me like a sledgehammer.

So, what can we legitimately describe as a need?  Obviously, anything a child would die without can be classed as a need, so oxygen, water and food.  I think we could also classify as a need anything that has been shown to be beneficial for children in the long-term (i.e. anything that predicts physical and psychological health and wellbeing) AND that children deliberately seek and enthusiastically consume given the opportunity.  So, I think we can sensibly talk about children needing parental attention or proximity to attachment figures or social interaction or pretend play.  Children seek those experiences with relish.  But I don’t think we can legitimately talk about children needing to learn to sleep in their own bed, or control their emotional reactions, or pay attention… Of course, we can argue for the wisdom of teaching children these skills, in our particular cultural context, based on our individual values.  But that should be an honest discussion about values, opinions and ideals.  Not a ruthless push of a particular worldview with confusing and guilt-making talk about the ‘needs’ of children.

Apply it to your life:  Be on the lookout for discussion on the ‘needs’ of children.  Are they discussing genuine needs, or are they using ‘needs’ talk to push a particular opinion?  Of course, that doesn’t mean the opinion is wrong, you may well agree with it!  But is it helpful to confuse the issue with talk of ‘needs’?

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Are babies, comforted to sleep, shocked to later wake alone in a cot (crib)?

It is commonly argued that a baby comforted to sleep will, when waking later in their cot (crib), experience a shock when they notice that they are no longer in their parent’s arms.  This shock, it is reasoned, will cause the baby to call out to the parent for comfort.  This reasoning is frequently used to discourage parents from comforting their baby to sleep.  Parents are, instead, told to encourage their baby to ‘self-settle’ to sleep in their cot from day one.  Only if the baby falls asleep in the cot alone, it is argued, will the baby feel calm when they wake and find themselves alone in their cot.

This is nonsense.  It fact, although this line of reasoning is commonly used to recommend behavioural sleep strategies, it fails on behavioural grounds.  That is, it fails as a behavioural account of surprise.

To see why, imagine that tonight, after falling asleep in your bed as usual, you stir and wake at 2am.  As you become aware of your surroundings you realise that you are in the kitchen, curled up on the middle of the kitchen floor.  Would you be surprised?  Absolutely!  The question is, why?  The common-sense explanation is that you’d be surprised because you remember falling asleep in your bed.  But, as a behavioural account of your surprise, this is wrong.  From a behavioural perspective, the reason you’d be surprised is this:  that has never happened to you before.

Imagine that you drag yourself up off the kitchen floor and back into bed.  The rest of the night and the following day passes as usual.  You fall asleep in your bed again as usual and again you stir and wake at 2am.  Yet again, you find yourself in the kitchen.  You drag yourself back to bed, the rest of the night and the following day passes, you fall asleep in your bed and again wake to find yourself in the kitchen.  In fact, you keep waking at 2am and finding yourself in your kitchen, again and again night after night.  And here’s the thing: after days and weeks, would you continue to be surprised?  Of course not!  You’d quickly learn that waking up in the kitchen is now something that happens to you and the event would no longer shock.

So, from a behavioural perspective, it is ridiculous to claim that a baby who is regularly comforted to sleep and placed sleeping into their cot, would be shocked to find herself alone in her cot when she wakes.  After all, this is an event that has happened again and again since she was born!

Apply it to your life:  Do you enjoy comforting your baby to sleep?  Does it help your baby to settle to sleep efficiently?  Then, go ahead and comfort.

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You have a superpower… and it has a dark side

Humans have a superpower.  We use our superpower every day and it is part of why we have achieved all that we have as a species.  You can use your superpower right now.  Are you ready?  Imagine your favourite food.  Pause and really picture it in your mind’s eye – see exactly what it looks like.  Imagine biting into it.  Recall the taste, the texture, the flavour…

Feeling hungry?  Like eating your favourite food?  Did you even notice your mouth begin to water?

That is our superpower.  You responded to food that is not there.  You responded to your thoughts as if they were real.  Your ability to respond to your thoughts as if they were real allows you to do incredible things.  You can mentally place yourself in a situation that you’ve never been in before, explore what your reactions may be, and use this information to plan ahead.  You can mentally place yourself in the situation of another, and use this to understand their reactions better.  It is an awesome skill and one that you will use, as a parent, all the time. But all superpowers have a dark side…

The dark side of this superpower is that we can become stuck.  We can become stuck responding to our thoughts instead of responding to what is actually happening in our lives.  This is doubly bad for parents because guess where our children are?  They exist, not in our heads, but in our lives… The irony is that we can become so entangled with our thoughts about our children and about parenting that we miss our actual children entirely.

The solution?  Notice your thoughts for what they are…thoughts…and, good or bad, watch them come and go…  Bring yourself back into the here and now of your life.  Reconnect with what is actually happening, with what you can feel and sense right now with your physical body.  Pause for a moment as you read this and actually do it:

  • What can you hear?  A lawnmower in the distance?  A ticking clock?
  • What can you see?  Is it dark or light?  Look around you and take in your surroundings.
  • What can you feel in your body?  Can you feel the pressure of your chair supporting your back and legs?  The solid surface of the ground beneath your feet?

As thoughts bubble up notice this without getting caught in their pull.  “Ah,” you might say to yourself, “I’m noticing the thought that…”

Apply it to your life:  Notice times when you get stuck in your thoughts.  Can you bring yourself back into the here and now with your life?  What happens to your parenting when you are stuck living in your head?  What happens to your parenting when you bring yourself back into the here and now of your life?

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Online Conference: The Great Baby Sleep Debate

You may have noticed that infant sleep is a highly controversial topic.

Well, I’ll soon be presenting in a unique online conference that you may be interested in: The Great Baby Sleep Debate.

The Great Baby Sleep Debate Online 2014 brings together international researchers in the field of infant sleep, explores the latest science and its practical implications and encourages respectful and constructive dialogue between researchers and clinicians, between disciplines, and between different perspectives. The Great Baby Sleep Debate has a unique focus on interdisciplinary dialogue and respectful exploration of the controversial questions grounded in the latest empirical evidence.  We are online for the first time this year!

Presenters and panel members include: Prof Helen Ball, A/Prof Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, Ian St James-Roberts, and Prof Jeanine Young.  I will be presenting on supporting mother-infant dyads using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.  I will also, along with Dr Pamela Douglas, be presenting our radically different approach to parent-infant sleep in the first six months: the Possums Sleep Intervention.

The Great Baby Sleep Debate Online 2014 will be LIVE on the 27th and the 28th of June 2014 with a discussion panel on the 1st of July 2014 AEST.  Recorded presentations will be available until the 15th of August 2014 AEST.  You will be able to join in the discussions and ask your questions LIVE.  Check it out now:



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The fear inside our judgement of other parents

What is it about parenting that makes us so judgemental?  I hate the judgement that we parent’s suffer, I have years of professional experience in being non-judgemental, and I genuinely believe that there isn’t one ‘right’ way to parent  and yet…if I am honest, I must confess that I am tempted to judge other parents all the time.  ‘Oh,’ I whisper to myself self-righteously, ‘I would never do that…’  Then I cringe in disgust at my own stupidity.   Just where does that hateful, self-serving little voice come from?  Just what is under all of that judgement?  What, exactly, is at stake?

Parenting is scary.  It can be terrifying, in fact.  In becoming a parent, we find that we’ve made ourselves vulnerable, vulnerable to being hurt dreadfully, vulnerable to experiencing true horrors.  We could:

  • Be forced to watch our children suffer
  • Discover that we have failed to prepare our children for the world
  • Experience a yawning distance between ourselves and our children
  • Find that our children have done things we consider abhorrent
  • Live to see our children die

With such nightmares haunting us we turn to talismans to protect us, to reassure us that none of these terrors could ever be in our future.  And one of those talismans is the just world delusion – the belief that the world is fundamentally just, that good things will happen to good parents and bad things happen to bad parents.  With the just world delusion, we can convince ourselves that as long as we are good enough and do all the ‘right’ things then our children will be safe.  But the just world delusion has a dark side.  To keep believing that we’ve found safety from our nightmares, we need to judge and blame other parents.  Any parents who have come to experience one of our nightmares must, somehow, be culpable.  We cling to our ideas of ‘right’ parenting with superstitious fervour; after all, these are the precious talismans that guarantee our family’s safety.

If we look under our judgement we find fear, and the terrifying reality that we are trying to protect ourselves from is this:  any and all of those nightmares could happen no matter what we do.  From this vulnerable, scary space we can realise something else: the same thing is true for every other parent on the planet.  We share the same nightmares.  And so, instead of covering our fear with judgement, we can use our fear to find compassion.  It becomes possible to respond to other parents, who do things we personally would not do, with genuine respect, non-judgement, and kindness.

Apply it to your life:  Do you notice a judgemental inner voice sometimes, too?  Can you notice the fear beneath the temptation to judge other parents, and within that, can you find compassion?

Find out more about the Just World Delusion 


Lerner, M.J. & Miller, D.T. (1978). Just world research and the attribution process: Looking back and ahead.  Psychological Bulletin. 85 (5), 1030-1051.

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